Saturday, May 23, 2020
Everyday people converse with one another, and the ways we communicate are dependent on the elements of human communication. Recently I had a conversation with one of my friends about our future academic lives, and without the elements of human communication there would have been no communal transaction between the two of us. The elements of human communication: context, source-receiver, messages, channels, noise, and effects are a necessity in communication for there to be any transaction of information. The communication context during a conversation can be observed in four different dimensions: physical, social-psychological, temporal, and cultural. Physical is the tangible part of a conversation. The social-psychological part of the conversation would include the status relationship. The temporal is the setting for example to time of the day affect upon a conversation. The last one is how culture would influence a conversation and this happens when people of different beliefs communicate. Ã¢â¬Å"These four dimensions of context interact with one anotherÃ¢â¬ (DeVito, 8). For instance, during my conversation my friend arrived at the time (temporal context) she said she was going to because that is what is appropriate to do in our culture (cultural context), and due to us being such close friends (social-psychological) our body language remained laid back and calm (physical context). Different communication messages are sent and received through different sensory organs. ForShow MoreRelatedCommunication is the one key element of life that sets human beings apart from the rest of the800 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesCommunication is the one key element of life that sets human beings apart from the rest of the animal kingdom. The human ability to communicate at a very refined standard has enabled us to build civilizations and to develop advanced technologies. Technology has undoubtedly advanced throughout the years and with particular groundbreaking inventions such as the Internet, smartphones and tablets our ability to effectively communicate in a formal and detailed manner has deteriorated. The means of communicatingRead MoreCommunication Theory Has A Long History Of Attempting To1069 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesCommunication theory has a long history of attempting to provide an understanding of the fundamentals of human communication. Several theories have emerged, but all ha ve proven to be contentious, one of the most notable is Shannon and WeaverÃ¢â¬â¢s Transmission Model. This essay will begin by discussing how Daniel ChandlerÃ¢â¬â¢s (1994) The Transmission Model of Communication outlines the core concepts of the model and how it fails to provide an adequate theory of communication. It will then outline the keyRead MoreThe Ideas About Human Communication784 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesChalita Brown 1/17/2016 COMM330: Elements of Persuasion How are the ideas about human communication related to the definition of persuasion? Persuasion can be very complex to define and/or understand. Essentially by writing this paper, I am attempting to persuade my professor that I understand persuasion and how it relates to human communication. People use persuasion every day whether they realize it or not. It can be negative and attempt to manipulate or deceive. It can also be positive and comeRead MoreThe Transmission Model Of Communication990 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesCommunication theory has a long history of endeavouring to provide an understanding of the fundamentals of human interaction. Several theories have been developed, but one of the most notable is Claude Shannon and Warren WeaverÃ¢â¬â¢s Transmission Model. This essay will discuss how ChandlerÃ¢â¬â¢s (1994) The Transmission Model of Communication outlines the core concepts of the model, it will then summarise the key elements of the model, before lastly discussing Ã¢â¬Ëthe real worldÃ¢â¬â¢ implications of the model. ThisRead MoreCommunication in Shat tered Glass Essay1190 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages1.) What is communication according to you? Discuss various elements of communication and use scenes or aspects from the motion picture to illustrate your view. Communication, by my own means, is a way to for two or more people to interact or influence each other. It is a way of discovering our world without having to travel kilometres or spending millions. Communication is the single most important aspect in our human society, that without it, the chances of survival are finite. There are aboutRead MoreNonverbal Communication : The Method Of Encoding And Decoding1108 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesNonverbal communication consists of the method of encoding and decoding. Encoding is the act of producing the communication using gestures, facial expressions, and posture. Decoding is the process of receiving the information and how the individual processes that information based on their previous experiences. Culture plays a significant role that helps the way learning activities are organized. Nonverbal communication consists of visual cues such as kinesics, proxemics, paralanguage, and hapticsRead MoreCultural Identity. Humans Have Thrived In Their Outlined930 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesCultural Identity Humans have thrived in their outlined structure of society and communicate with different cultures in a variety levels, ways, and ideas. Communication between cultures is shaped its values, beliefs, and behaviors. These components characterize an array of individuals, with determinate factors that affect how they communicate. The United States cultural components of values, beliefs, and behavior, affect how I communicate with unfamiliar cultures in a variety of ways. The UnitedRead MoreAnalysis Of Project Management Process Group1599 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesthese processes work in conjunction to make up the whole Project Management Plan. The risks associated with not properly addressing the key elements will ultimately result in the project failing. The PMBOK lists 9 key elements of a project plan. In this section, we will look at the associated risks if the project manager fails to address any of these. Key Element 1 Ã¢â¬â Scope. The most common risk associated here is scope creep, or the continued addition of new aspects to the scope. Scope creep can comeRead MoreQuestions On The Human Resources Administration1306 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesIntroduction The Human Resources Administration needs to integrate the behavior of their employees to avoid chaos and maintain a balance and order within themselves, as well as the functionality and structure of the organization, the importance of formalized guidelines which direct the action of thought and resolutions of common problems related to the objectives of the organization. Therefore it is essential to establish some guidelines that govern the rights and duties between employers and workersRead MoreBarriers to Effective Communication Essay1046 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesb Barriers to Effective Communication University of Phoenix CJA/304 Barriers to Effective Communication Effective communication is a complex phenomenon that involves the verbal and nonverbal components in their cooperation. The main target of communicational process is transmission of information when the sending party wants the recipient to decode the message in the same way as it is coded. Nevertheless, the communicational process consists of the various components that may become the
Monday, May 18, 2020
I sit in the back of the class. Not by force, but of my own accord. I am aware that this is a paper about my passion and we will proceed to that, but there is much more to people that sit in the back that you think. My seating is a segment of my Ã¢â¬ËpassionÃ¢â¬â¢, for it is where I am most comfortable and where I can access my desires the most efficiently. Yes, you might think it is purely to avoid the looming eye of the professor, but it is just the opposite. It is so I can access the start, or the outlet to my passionÃ¢â¬ ¦ imagination. The cognitive freedom I have is my passion and it very well manifests itself on the physical plane of existence. In my eyes the subject of this essay is not even a Ã¢â¬ËpassionÃ¢â¬â¢, but my way of life, it is the way I can function freely without succumbing to the stressors in my surroundings. This is an endeavor of the mind as much as it is a verbal exhibition of my art, better yet, this is a journey, for us both. Everyone has an imagina tion, just different ways to express it. For the longest time, I have expressed my imagination through art, specifically through the medium of drawing. During adolescence, I drew arbitrary things ranging from simple apples to menacing monsters. At the moment, drawing was the only way I could free my mind. This was the sole reason of my joy during bad times. Putting pencil to paper was a means of escape, instead of my mind coming forth I was the one traveling, delving into my brain for inspiration. It didnÃ¢â¬â¢t matter if I wasShow MoreRelatedPersonal Statement : My Passion Project1230 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages In the beginning of my passion project I felt unsure about being able to get anything out of it. The reason for that is because my loved one has already attempted to stop her addiction but always failed. Knowing that I felt that it was going to be another fail. Mostly I was scared of how she was going to react when I told her about what I wanted to do. I was also excited and h appy that maybe this time she will actually be bale to overcome Her addiction, because she would have me by her side pushingRead MoreMy Passion For Christ Drive Everything That I Do933 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages2.1 Mission Statement. I am determined to allow my passion for Christ drive everything that I do. This includes being a good friend and investing myself into people more, asking the hard questions both in class and in life, and improving on my self judgement (being my own worst enemy). Included in this is, having more internal self-confidence. I will also take advantage of my strengths by accepting that imperfections are normal, and weakness will allow me to grow and trust more with all of thisRead MoreStatement of Purpose1126 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesStatement of Purpose Many professors, department websites, applications, and current graduate students will tell you that the statement of purpose is the most important part of the application. While the statement of purpose is the best way for the admissions committee to gauge your writing skills, it is quite different from the college admissions essay, or the law school personal statement. Admissions committees will not be looking for the most well-written essay with the catchiest introductionRead MoreThe Sunday Night Blues : A Case About 59 Essay1700 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesa case about 59% of Americans come down with every Sunday night before starting the work week ahead. These people absolutely dread going to work every week, the majority of them wishing they could be able to quit their jobs and chase after their passions. A highly credible philosophical professor named Dr. Gordon Marino, made an entire article arguing why it would be inadequate and unethical for someone to quit a job that is necessar y in order to provide for something bigger than oneself, that workingRead MoreA Life Beyond Do What You Love Essay1698 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesa case about 59% of Americans come down with every Sunday night before starting the work week ahead. These people absolutely dread going to work every week, the majority of them wishing they could be able to quit their jobs and chase after their passions. A highly credible philosophical professor named Dr. Gordon Marino, made an entire article arguing why it would be inadequate and unethical for someone to quit a job that is necessary in order to provide for something bigger than oneself, that workingRead MoreWhat Makes A Vocation? Essay1247 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesWhile sitting down to write this assignment, I really wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t sure where to start. I donÃ¢â¬â¢t find myself to be someone who has had an Ã¢â¬Å"ahaÃ¢â¬ moment, nor have I had any big life events that have really shown me what my vocation should be. To describe my vocation, first, I should define what vocation is to me. I donÃ¢â¬â¢t believe that vocation is something that you just find when you are young and know what you want to do forever. Vocation to me is an ongoing process that is a moving target throughout lifeRead MoreLeadership Styles Of Conrad Hilton1617 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesLeadership Comparison For my leadership comparison I selected Conrad Hilton of Hilton Worldwide. Since being founded in 1919, Hilton Worldwide has been a leader in the hospitality industry. Today, Hilton Worldwide remains a beacon of innovation, quality, and success. Leadership Characteristics Knowledge Gained from Research Knowledge Gained from Class How I plan to apply this Knowledge Integrity Hilton Worldwide prides themselves on doing things right the first time. I plan to uphold integrityRead MoreGun Legislation Essay991 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesshares personal examples of his beliefs of gun ownership and personal examples of how his life changed once he bought a Crossman Power Master 760 BB Repeater pump gun. After purchasing the gun, he believed that the reason people like guns so much is because of a passion that gun owners feel. He stated, This is the feeling that explains their passion, their religious fervor, their refusal to yield. Its rooted in the gut, not in the head (Verhulst 342). He also realized that personal thoughtsRead MoreMy Personal Philosophy Of Innovation1290 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesLeadership: A Personal Philosophy To embrace the person that you are, in a time and place where everyone seems to be telling you that you should be everything but the person that you are, is a daunting but worthwhile challenge. I believe that it is in the acceptance of our true selves, imperfections and all, that we gain the ability to view others through a lens colored with compassion and acceptance. It is then that we can become a leader who is self-aware and emotionally competent. Personal PhilosophyRead MoreThe Ultimate Test Of A Moral Society867 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesÃ¢â¬Å"The ultimate test of a moral society is the kind of world that it leaves to its children.Ã¢â¬ Dietrich Bonhoeffer (1906Ã¢â¬â1945). Ã¢â¬Å"I swear to fulfill, to the best of my ability...Ã¢â¬ While reciting the oath, he closed his eyes and remembered the moment that had changed his life dramatically. He was only thirteen years old when his English teacher asked him, Ã¢â¬Å"What are your goals in life?Ã¢â¬ This question left the boy speechless. He returned home contemplating the answer
Monday, May 11, 2020
Feminism changed womens lives and created new worlds of possibility for education, empowerment, working women, feminist art and feminist theory. For some, the goals of the feminist movement were simple: let women have freedom, equal opportunity and control over their lives. For others, though, the goals were more abstract or complex. Scholars and historians often divide the feminist movement into three waves. First-wave feminism, rooted in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, is closely related to the womens suffrage movement, as it focused primarily on legal inequalities. In contrast, second-wave feminism was mainly active in the 1960s and 70s and focused on inequalities embedded in social norms more than in laws. Here are some specific feminist movement goals from the Ã¢â¬Å"second waveÃ¢â¬ of feminism. Rethinking Society With Feminist Theory This was accomplished by, among other disciplines, womenÃ¢â¬â¢s studies, feminist literary criticism, gynocriticism, socialist feminism and the feminist art movement.Ã Looking through a feminist lens at history, politics, culture, and economics, feminists developed insights in just about every intellectual discipline. To this day, the fields of womens studies and gender studies are major presences in academia and in social criticism. Abortion Rights The call for Ã¢â¬Å"abortion on demandÃ¢â¬ is often misunderstood. Leaders of the womenÃ¢â¬â¢s liberation movement were clear that women should have reproductive freedom and safe access to legal abortion, making the choice for her reproductive status without interference by the state or paternalistic medical professionals. Second-wave feminism led to the landmark Roe v. Wade decision in 1973, which legalized abortion in most circumstances. De-Sexing the English Language Feminists helped spark debate over assumptions embedded in our language that reflect the assumption of a male-dominated patriarchal society. Language was often centered around males, assuming that humanity was male and women were exceptions.Ã Use neutral pronouns? Identify words with gender bias? Invent new words?Ã Many solutions were tried, and the debate continues into the 21st century. Education Many women went to college and worked professionally in the early 20th century, but the mid-20th century ideal of the middle-class suburban housewife and the nuclear family downplayed the importance of womenÃ¢â¬â¢s education. Feminists knew that girls and women must be encouraged to seek an education, and not just as Ã¢â¬Å"something to fall back on,Ã¢â¬ if they were to become, and be seen as, fully equal.Ã And within education, access by women to all programs, including sports programs, was a major goal. In 1972, Title IX forbade gender discrimination in education-related programs that received federal funding (such as school athletic programs). Equality Legislation Feminists worked for the Equal Rights Amendment, the Equal Pay Act, the addition of sex discrimination to the Civil Rights Act and other laws that would guarantee equality.Ã Feminists advocated for a variety of laws and interpretations of existing laws to remove impediments to womens professional and economic achievements, or full exercise of citizenship rights (such as having women on juries on an equal basis to men).Ã Feminists questioned the long tradition of protective legislation for women which often ended up sidelining women from being hired, promoted, or treated fairly. Promoting Political Participation The League of Women Voters had existed since just after women won the vote, and the LWV had supported educating women (and men) in informed voting, and had done some work in promoting women as candidates.Ã In the 1960s and 1970s, other organizations were created and the LWV extended its mission to promote even more participation in the political process by women including by recruiting, training, and financially supporting women candidates. Rethinking Womens Roles in Nuclear Family Households Although not all feminists called for collective mothering or went so far as to urge Ã¢â¬Å"seizing the means of reproduction,Ã¢â¬ as Shulamith Firestone wrote in The Dialectic of Sex, it was clear that women should not have to bear the sole responsibility for raising children.Ã Roles also included who does the housework.Ã Research showed that even full time working wives did the majority of housework, and various individuals and theorists proposed ways of changing the proportion of who did which household chores, and who held responsibility for those chores as well. Ã¢â¬Å"I Want a WifeÃ¢â¬ No, this essay from the first issue ofÃ Ms.Ã magazineÃ did not mean that every woman literally wanted a wife. It did suggest that any adult would love to have someone to play the Ã¢â¬Å"housewifeÃ¢â¬ role as it had been defined: the caretaker and the one who runs things behind-the-scenes. Supporting Women as Parents While feminism re-examined the maternal role expected of women, feminism also worked to support women when they were the primary caretaker of children or the primary custodial parent.Ã Feminists worked for family leave, employment rights through pregnancy and childbirth including covering pregnancy and newborn medical expenses through health insurance, child care, and reform in marriage and divorce laws. Representation in Popular Culture Feminists critiqued the presence (or non-presence) of women in popular culture, and popular culture expanded the roles which women held.Ã Television shows gradually added women in more central and less stereotyped roles, including some shows featuring single women who wanted more than just to find a man.Ã Movies also expanded roles, and female-driven comics saw a resurgence and widened audience, with Wonder Woman leading the way.Ã Traditional womens magazines fell under critique, with the result of both some change in how women were depicted there, and specialty magazines likeÃ Working WomanÃ and Ms. MagazineÃ created to meet the new market demands -- and to reshape the market. Expanding the Voice of Women in Other Movements An example: women had often been shut out of unions or relegated to a Ladies Auxiliary through much of the 20th century. As the feminist movement gained momentum, pressure on the union movement to represent more jobs that were pink collar jobs (mostly held by women) increased.Ã Organizations like Women Employed were created for representing women in offices where unions were not strong.Ã And the Coalition of Labor Union Women (CLUW) was created to help women in leadership roles within unions develop solidarity and support in getting the union movement to be more inclusive of women, both among those represented, and in leadership.
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Anselm- the ontological argument. Posteriori truth is a truth that requires experience to be known. Priori- such propositions are knowable prior to, or independently of, experience. 1. god is by definition the greatest being possible. 2. A being who fails to exist in the actual world (while existing in other possible worlds) is less perfect than a being who exists in all possible worlds. Hence, God exists, necessarily. Ã¢â¬Å"maybe an ant cant conceive of a greater creature than an anteater, but that doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t mean that anteaters are the most perfect possible beings. Ã¢â¬Å"conceivableÃ¯Æ' possibleÃ¢â¬ Aquinas-all PKG god. ((((1. Motion. Objects in motion are moved by other objects. Causes must precede effects. No infinite cause/effect chains.Ã¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Design argument- someone created the watch. David Hume- says that arguments are stronger or weaker depending on how similar the two things being compared are. Dogs humans- weak. Plants and humans- weak. Says that an argument must be inductive for it to make sense. He thinks belief is only rational if it is sufficiently supported by evidence. AJ Ayer- says the claim that god exists is neither true nor false, it is meaningless. Blaise Pascal- this is a modern theory that describes how an agent should choose among different available actions on the basis of the utilities of different outcomes. Ã¢â¬Å"gamblingÃ¢â¬ by believing in god, you get an infinite reward (heaven). By not believing, you get an infinite punishment (hell). If you believe in god and there isnÃ¢â¬â¢t a god (-10) not a horrible result, yes you have wasted time. If you donÃ¢â¬â¢t believe in god and there is no god (+10) you have spent your time doing something enjoyable rather than church.. the expected utility of believing is higher than the utility of not believing. Argues that it can make sense to believe in things that are unsupported by evidence. William James- says that a person is entitled to believe in god for purely prudential reasons if the belief provides a Ã¢â¬Å"vital benefitÃ¢â¬ and if no decision about theism can be made on the basis of the evidence available. Ã¢â¬Å"CHOICESÃ¢â¬ you choose your own fate. Pragmatism- is a general philosophical position that has implicationsShow MoreRelatedChaser Essay1713 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesPhilosophy 6: Ethical Issues in Business Midterm Essay Chase Novak Dr. Parker Need or Greed? New Protocol: How DrugÃ¢â¬â¢s Rebirth as Treatment for Cancer Fueled Price Rises Immanuel Kant-Kantian Deontology John Locke- The Justification of Private Property Adam Smith-Benefits of the Profit Motive Milton Friedman- The Social Responsibility of Business Is to Increase Its Profits Thesis: An examination of the case study New Protocol: How DrugÃ¢â¬â¢s Rebirth as Treatment for Cancer Fueled Price RisesRead MoreHow Does History Changed Our Future?1670 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagescould have lead to the creation of his teaching as a philosophy, which is called Confucianism. In colonial America, the majority of teachers were men. In the 1830s, Common School started. This is considered the precursor for todayÃ¢â¬â¢s public school. This method was proposed by education reformer Horace Mann. Instead of being funded by the church, schools using this method were funded by taxes. They instilled a common and social philosophy of Republican Principles, this is because the foundersRead MoreThe Vision For Americ A Country Divided978 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesNathaniel Shaffer HIST 3311 SP2016 Midterm The Vision for America: A Country Divided Following the Revolutionary War, the Federalists and the Jeffersonians would dictate the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s future through their decisions. After gaining independence from Britain, the United States would need a clear path to endure the future hardships and struggles, and the founding fathers would need to decide where to lead it. The Jeffersonians, the staunch defenders of the everyman and of statesÃ¢â¬â¢s rights, would battleRead MoreQwea3383 Words Ã |Ã 14 PagesContent Content Course Overview Objectives Course Materials Prerequisite Learning (Teaching) Philosophy Getting Help Class Procedures Assessment Written Assignments Balanced Scorecard Project Measurement Project Examinations Professionalism Potential Extra Credit Opportunities Potential Course Problems Special Accommodations Preliminary Course Calendar Page No. 1 1 1 1 2 2 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 6 7 Important Note: Changes to the syllabus will be announced in class and posted to the website. Students areRead MoreAnalyzing Sexual And Gender Issues Within The Realm Of1028 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagessame demeanor outside of the course time as we talked about his accomplishments and words of advice for students. Dr. Salzman was born in Coos Bay, Oregon and attended the University of San Diego, graduating in 1986 with a bachelorÃ¢â¬â¢s degree in Philosophy and Theology and Religious Studies. From there, he obtained his doctorate degree in Theology in 1994 from the Catholic University of Leuven in Belgium. Right off the bat, it was easy to find comradery in our meeting as I had a good friend currentlyRead MoreLearning Statistics And Its Impact On Education Essay1687 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesto deliver expertise and knowledge about statistics from a different perspective. It encourages demonstrating the actual reasoning behind sophisticated statistical tools and explaining the effects of statistics and its applications to society. My philosophy is to teach statistical methodologies so that students can use them and to demonstrate how to convey statistical knowledge to a diverse audience successfully. From the first day of my class, I motivate students to learn course materials rather thanRead M oreCommunity Policing : An Overarching Law Enforcement Strategy1323 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesMidterm: Community Policing Zachary L. DeLuca Boston University Dr. Carney February 8, 2016 Ã¢â¬Æ' Community policing is an overarching law enforcement strategy that works to integrate police departments and officers with the neighborhoods they serve (Carney, 2015). Community policing strives to create a partnership between officers and citizens such that all parties are working towards the common goal of crime prevention and safety (Siegel Welsh, 2015); as described by the Bureau of JusticeRead MoreMKTG 2001 COURSE OUTLINE 2014 2015 SEMESTER 2 12009 Words Ã |Ã 9 Pagesappointment. Lecture Times: Monday 1-3 pm (DAY- Medical Sciences Lecture Theatre), Friday, 5-7pm (EVENING- LT1) Course Notes on E-Learning (See the META course) NOTE WELL: IF YOU ARE NOT REGISTERED FOR THIS COURSE ANY COURSEWORK THAT YOU HAND IN FOR OUR ASSESSMENT WILL BE AWARDED AN AUTOMATIC ZERO, THEREFORE ENSURE THAT YOU ARE REGISTERED BEFORE YOU SUBMIT ANY PIECE OF COURSEWORK. NOTE WELL: IN ORDER TO PASS THIS COURSE, STUDENTS MUST ACHIEVE AT LEAST 50% (A PASS) IN BOTH THE COURSEWORK COMPONENTRead MoreCheating is Against The Rules1044 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages I only have two hours to study for tomorrowÃ¢â¬â¢s math midterm due to the additional three essays and two presentations I have to turn in for my other classes. I have divided my available hours and for this exam, I could either study for two hours and not get a good grade, or break the rules by using the notes during the exam, therefore getting a guaranteed A. What should I do? Cheating is against the rules of all corporations, institutions, and life. It is not viewed as morally correct because asRead MoreDifferent Methods Of Assessment At University Education1457 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesgreater flexibility in forms or methods of assessment at university education. The aims of education Education is the most important and effective way to help individuals develop and socially progress. People establish their own concept of the world, philosophy and values through their growth (Kohlberg, Mayer, 1972, p.451). It encourages and promotes self-development and satisfies peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s spiritual demand (Marcia, B., Magolda, B., 2004, p.214). People need to gain knowledge and experiences to become mature
string(107) " the lower levels of employees do get involved in the decision making process by giving their suggestions\." Hypothesis The following hypothesis is used as a logical approach for completion of the essay. A hypothesis is used in order to identify all the key elements of the essay in a logical and a systematic order. The hypothesis is as follows; Ã¢â¬Å"Is effective communication more about identifying and overcoming barriers to communication? What is the nature of effective communication? Ã¢â¬ Based on the above hypothesis, I have listed the following key elements. We will write a custom essay sample on Communication Process or any similar topic only for you Order Now 1. Communication 1. Communication process 2. Types of communication 3. Importance of communication 2. How communication can influence an organization? 3. Effective ineffective communication 1. What is effective communication? 2. Importance of effective communication 3. What is ineffective communication? 4. How both effective and ineffective communication affects an organization? 4. Identifying overcoming communication barriers 1. Barriers to effective communication 2. How to overcome barriers to communication? 1. Introduction Ã¢â¬Å"Communication is the use of verbal and non-verbal communication between people trying to create shared meaning. Ã¢â¬ (Yoder, Hugenberg Wallace 1996) Throughout the history of mankind, their uniqueness in communication has become the key element in their success to become the most developed and well organized living beings among thousands of others. It is no different when comes to the corporate world, better the communication process that an organization posses, better the performances they achieve in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s competitive world. So it has become vital for an organization to keep its communication process as effectively as possible in order achieve its organizational goals in a both effective and efficient manner. So the following essay was prepared with the intention of giving the readers a better understanding and a clear view of what is effective communication and what makes the communication a process an effective one. 2. 0 What is communication? Communication is where two or more people will transfer information, feelings, ideas and opinions between or among each others. 2. 1 The communication process This is the standard model of a communication process. This process always takes place between two parties. Sender Ã¢â¬â The starting point of the communication process, sender will encode the message Message Ã¢â¬â The information which is sent to the receiver. Channel Ã¢â¬â Is the medium which transfers the message from the sender to the receiver. Barriers Ã¢â¬â Barriers are the distortions which make the message not to be conveyed as intended. Receiver Ã¢â¬â The person whoÃ¢â¬â¢s at the end of the process and whoÃ¢â¬â¢ll decode the message Feedback Ã¢â¬â It will be the final step of the communication process where receiver sends a message as reply to the sender. 2. Types of communication Different forms of communication media like televisions, radios are used by people in order to communicate information,opinions, etc, among each others. The most primitive ways of communication are by body language,speaking,sign language and eye contact. All of those communication methods can be broadly divided in to two main types. Those two types of communication are as follows. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Verbal communication Ã¢â¬ ¢ Non verbal communication 1. Verbal communication Verbal communication includes sounds, words, language and speaking. When it comes to business,Ã verbal communicationÃ is very important for the reason being that you are dealing with a variety of people through out the day. In some cases you may deal with people who have different culture, ages and with different levels of experience. Fluent verbal communication is essential to deal with people in business meetings. Business communicationÃ self-confidenceÃ plays a vital role which when matched with fluentÃ communication skills. 2. Non verbal communication Non-verbal communicationÃ involves physical ways of communication, like, tone of the voice, touch, smell and body motion. Symbols and sign language are also included in non-verbal communication. Body language is a non-verbal way of communication. Body posture and physical contact convey a lot of information. Body posture matters a lot when you are communicating verbally to someone. Folded arms and crossed legs are some of the signals conveyed by a body posture. Physical contact, like, shaking hands, pushing, patting and touching expresses the feeling of intimacy. Facial expressions, gestures and eye contact are all different ways of communication. 3. Importance of communication Every action a person or an organization takes is mostly based on the information available; to perform that specific action as intended, relevant information will be required. Even after performing the act, the party which performed it will need a feedback to identify whether the performed act bore the intended results. So it is clear that, without communication, none of those would be possible. 3. 0 Involvement of communication in an organization. For an organization to run smoothly, it has to have a well structured communication process inside its own. According to Kondrat (2009), Communication is the Ã¢â¬Å"lifebloodÃ¢â¬ of every organization. A vital means of attending to company concerns is through effective internal communication. Decision making is the most vital activity in an organization, to make decisions, to implement them and to reassess those decisions, organizational management will require relevant information. As discussed previously to have better information, better communication among all layers is required. So it is evident that, better the communication inside the organization, better the decision it makes and also better the results. 3. 1 Formal communication channels Formal channels are used within an organization in order to make the flow of information smoother among all levels in the chain of command. In the general aspect, there are three main communication flows within an organization. Those are downward, upward and horizontal communication. 3. 1. 1 Downward communication It is the communication flow which is used by managers in an organization mainly to give orders and instructions. In a downward communication, the information flow will be from top to bottom, where managers will send messages to their subordinates. Those messages will include implementation of managerial decisions such as goals, plans and strategies, job instructions, rationale, procedures, practices, performance feedbacks, etc. 3. 1. 2 Upward communication Under this channel, information flow will be from the lower levels to the higher levels. Upward communication is more popular in learning organizations, where the lower levels of employees do get involved in the decision making process by giving their suggestions. You read "Communication Process" in category "Papers" Upward communication can be helpful in problem solving as the parties who are actually involved in the problem can give their point of view to the higher management. 3. 1. 3 Horizontal communication In horizontal communication, parties which are in the same level will communicate with each others. (e. g. inter departmental) This can be helpful to coordinate activities and request support. 3. 2 Informal communication channel These are the communication channels which are not authorized as formal communication channels and it doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t have a clear pattern of the hierarchical levels included. Literally an informal communication channel is a channel which can connect anyone in the organization. Examples for informal communication channels Ã¢â¬ ¢ Management by walking around (MBWA) Ã¢â¬ ¢ Grapevine 4. 0 Effective and Ineffective communication As the topic of this essay relates, achieving effective communication is vital. So before discussing about methods of achieving effective communication, it is more sensible to discuss what is meant by effective communication and what is meant by ineffective communication. 4. 1 What is effective communication? The communication process can be recognized as an effective one, when the receiver decodes and understand the message as intended by the sender. Furthermore, a proper feedback from the receiver to the sender will also facilitate effective communication. 4. 2 Importance of effective communication Effective communication skills is most likely to prevent conflicts and solve current conflicts it is learnt that through effective means of communication people can negotiate and arrive at possible solutions. The benefits of effective communication are many as they enhance all aspects of personal and professional lives. . 3 What is ineffective communication? This is a process by which the meaning the receiver attaches to a message may be completely different to the message intended by the sender. So it is evident that the basic concept of communication, which is sharing ideas and information among each other will be broken down if ineffective communication takes place. 4. 4 Importance of effe ctive communication to an organization According to Panse (2009), Most companies and organizations have people working in small teams. This has been found to be more effective and productive than a single individual toiling away at a project. When you have three or four more people working on an issue, you have the advantage of having access to more ideas and solutions for the project, of having more checking safeguards against any flaws in the plan, and of being able to establish more network connections. A group is also more likely to take on and complete large-scale, complex projects. For the team to operate smoothly there must be open and efficient communication between the members of the team Team communication is important for the following reasons Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬ ¢ Project-related information needs to be shared. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Each member of the team needs to be acquainted with the team goal and his/her role in the team. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Effective and open communication lines create feelings of trust and of belonging to the team. The more the members feel valued the more dedicated they are likely to be, and this in turn makes it easier for the team as a whole to achieve its goals. 4. 5 Affects of ineffective communication on an organization Ineffective communication hampers organizational success. This can also be seen as miscommunication. In an organization ineffective communication can occur due to many reasons. So it is important as a manager to curb these issues and create an effective communication channel. Ineffective communication leads to conflict within the organization and lead to distortion of information and this misunderstanding between department and individuals. Lack of effective communication may lead to a breakdown in interactions between employees in the organization. 5. Identifying and overcoming communication barriers. As discussed under the communication process, communication barriers are universal for any type of communication. In the perspective of an organization, barriers to communication can be divided into two main categories as individual barriers and organizational barriers. 5. 1 Individual barriers Ã¢â¬â Individual barriers are fatigue, poor listening skills, attitude toward the sender or the information, lack of interest in the message, fear, mistrust, past experiences, negative attitude, problems at home, lack of common experiences, and emotions. . 2 Organizational barriers Ã¢â¬â One of the major organizational barriers is the high power distance between low and high level employees. Due to this subordinates will not share sensitive information with their superiors as a result of the fear of facing negative reactions from the top management towards them. Poorly structured organizational channels will also active as an organizational barrier towards communication. 5. 3 Methods of overcoming barriers Ã¢â¬ ¢ Using constructive feedback Training employees to involve active listening when they communicate Ã¢â¬ ¢ Training employees to constraint their emotions Ã¢â¬ ¢ Eliminating differences in perception Ã¢â¬ ¢ Proper communication channel selection By using some or all of the methods mentioned above, an organization can reduce the impact done by communication barriers. 6. Conclusion In conclusion under the current situation, effective communication has universally become mandatory in order to achieve success. According to Kondrat (2009), Communication is the Ã¢â¬Å"lifebloodÃ¢â¬ of every organization. A vital means of attending to company concerns is through effective internal communication. If a manager is able to communicate their ideas clearly, so that employees definitely know what is asked of them, the subordinates will, consequently, perform their jobs correspondingly. On contrast, an aggressive way of managing reports results in employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ getting more and more frustrated often guessing what their real faults are To achieve effective communication, one must have a clear understanding about the communication process and how it functions. On the other hand, having a thorough understanding about the communication process will not help to build up effective communication. So it is wiser to find out what factors make communication effective. As discussed above, what make a communication process ineffective are the communication barriers. When those barriers are in place, they can disrupt the communication process in a huge manner. Those barriers will make, encoding and decoding the message hard. If it happens, the message will not be sent and received as intended. So then the whole communication process will become ineffective, as the sole reason for the processÃ¢â¬â¢ existence relies on conveying the intended message properly. This proves that identifying and overcoming communication barriers are important to have effective communication. Understanding the communication process will definitely help to make communication effective, but it will not eradicate the main obstacles for effective communication, which are the communication barriers. So it is now very clear that identifying and overcoming the communication barriers are far more important for effective communication than understanding the communication process. 7. References Communication Skills-Start Here, (1995). Retrieved on April 30, 2010 from http://www. mindtools. com/CommSkll/CommunicationIntro. html Management Skills Resources, (2009). Retrieved on May 1, 2010 from http://www. bizmove. com/skills/m8g. htm Maya Pillai, (n. d). Barriers to effective Communication, Retrieved on May 1, 2010 from http://www. buzzle. om/articles/barriers-to-effective-communication. html Mortensen (1998) Communication Models, Retrieved on May 1, 2010 from http://www. shkaminski. com/Classes/Handouts/Communication%20Models. htm Overcoming Communication Barriers, (n. d) , Retrieved on May 1, 2010 from http://managementstudyguide. com/overcoming-communication-barriers. htm Sonal Panse, (2009). Effective team communication. Retrieved on May 1, 2010, from http://www. buzzle. com/artic les/small-group-communication-effective-team-communication. html Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â Feedback Barriers Receiver Message Sender How to cite Communication Process, Essays
Question: Write about an Essay on Louis Daguerre. Answer: Introduction Louis Jacques Mand Daguerre was a photographer and an artist who was born in the French region of Cormeilles-en-Parisis, Val-dOise. He was born on November 18, in the year 1787. At the tender age of sixteen, he started working with the creator of stage settings in Paris Opera, I.E.M Degotti. He then continued his apprenticeship with Pierre Prevost, who was a specialist of panoramas. He became proficient at his skill of theatrical illusion. Daguerre later invented the diorama, which became hugely popular. Robinson (2016), in his paper says that after the death of Nicphore Nipce, with whom he had collaborated, he continued to experiment with a camera, which resulted in the invention of the process that later came to be known as daguerreotype. Pinson (2012) says that Daguerreotype was the process of photography in which a permanent photograph was obtained by using mercury vapor and an iodine-sensitized silvered plate. This type of photograph had a special characteristic: the viewer, who is observing the photograph, seems to observe that the photograph is floating on the metal surface rather than being flat. The illusion of reality is the uniqueness of the process. The image sits on a silver surface which is mirror-like. It is kept under glass and appears either positive or negative, depending upon the angle from which it is seen. The darkest area of the image appears to be bare silver and the lighter areas have a texture, which is light scattering. The surface of this type of photograph is very delicate and can be easily damaged by the lightest of touch. This essay discusses the immensely popular and significant photographer Louis Daguerre, his work and contribution to the world of photography. It speaks about the social, cultural, technical and aesthetic context of his work before moving on to discussing two of his works. Arnason (2013) opined that Louis Daguerre fathered the type of photography that later went on to become one of the widely used and popular form of photography daguerreotype. This type of image was first used in the year 1839, in the month of January. The process involved polishing a sheet of copper that was silver-plated to a mirror like finish and then treating it with fumes, which made the surface sensitive to light with the help of a liquid chemical treatment. A photograph that was developed using the daguerreotype process was different. When viewing this type of photograph, it gave the illusion of realism. It seemed that the image is floating in space. Louis Daguerre, in the year 1821, collaborated with Charles Bouton with the aim of creating a diorama theatre. Having expertise in scenic effects and lighting, Daguerre earned a name in set designing soon after. The first diorama theatre was built in Paris. According to Pinson (2012), Daguerre aimed to create a realistic illusion for the audience of the theatre. He wanted that the audiences should not just be entertained but also mesmerized. The theatres were glorious in size. The set had large transparent canvas that was painted on both the sides. These paintings were detailed and vibrant and were lit from different angles. With the change of lights, the scene would also change. Because of the change of lights, the audiences were able to see the painting on the other side of the canvas. This effect left the audience enraptured. The diorama was later used for a very long time for the set of theatres. The image type that he invented, the daguerreotype was also to later become the most widely form of photography process to be used. Nunberg (2015) commented that neither Daguerres microscopic nor his telescopic daguerreotypes survive, as on March 8, 1839, the Dioramaand with it Daguerres laboratoryburned to the ground, destroying the inventors written records and the bulk of his early experimental works. In fact, fewer than twenty-five securely attributed photographs by Daguerre survivea mere handful of still life, Parisian views, and portraits from the dawn of photography. The contribution of Louis Daguerre without a sliver of a doubt is immense in the field of photography and theatre. The process of photography, known as daguerreotype, was used almost everywhere in the world. There was a frequent use of this type of photography in newspapers. His invention was widely acclaimed and sought after. Sekula (2014) emphasized that the daguerreotype spread all throughout the world after its invention and presentation by Louis Jacques Mande Daguerre. Originating in Europe, the daguerreotype gained massive popularity in the United States especially in New York City. Exposed in a camera obscura and developed with mercury vapors, the photographs were immensely popular. The technology of the process of daguerreotype became hugely popular with the editors of the newspapers of that era. A private demonstration of the process made by Daguerre himself to some newspaper editors was reported. He also gave public demonstrations of his process. Although immensely popular, the process had three negative aspects. They are 1. Extended exposures, precluding the use of the new art for practical portraiture, 2. The image was fragile after it was ready and 3. Although the image was not colored, there appeared a shade of tones. The development of daguerreotype photography is supported by a variety of success and failure stories like any other invention. In their paper Gendler and GaBany (2015) say that the technical detail of this process of photography is very interesting. The method that was followed to obtain the photograph is as follows: a copper plate was first polished very well, then fumed with silver iodide. After that it was put into a camera obscura and then exposed. Then it was taken out and the put into a box with mercury vapors in it that came after heating mercury. Then it was placed in to a solution and before placing into a special box so that no air comes in. Louis Daguerre and his contribution to the world of photography is unequivocal. The aesthetic value of this type of photography is indeed very high. The look of this type of photography has an unique feel to the viewer. To the viewer it seemed that the photograph is floating rather than being flat. This type of photography undoubtedly is one of the earliest and most widely used form of photography. Although many refined type of photography style developed later , this remained the most commonly used and popular for a long period of time. Boulevard du Temple by Louis Daguerre Source: (Khan Academy, 2017) The above given photograph is one of the earliest photographs that was taken - Boulevard du Temple. This was taken by the famous pioneer of photography, Louis Jacques Mande Daguerre in the year 1838 or 1839. The photograph captured the image of two persons a customer getting his shoe polished by a shoe polisher. The image portrays an apparently empty street in Paris. The image was recorded on a copper sheet that was coated with silver and later developed with mercury fumes. This photograph captured the image of one of the busiest avenues of Paris. According to Bellis (2013), the exposure used for this photograph was of 10 to 15 minutes. Therefore, the other individuals who were not stationary did not get captured in this photo. The length of exposure was such that anything lesser than few minutes would not get registered in the frame. These two individuals are aesthetically placed, close to the classical compositional thirds position. According to Sekula (2014), this image was an im provement from Niepces photograph, View from the Window at Gras, which was indistinct and grainy as it required about eight hours of exposure to capture the image. This photograph was taken by Daguerre from his Diorama Building where it intersected with the Rue des Marais. One of the earliest daguerreotypes, this image is the earliest surviving photograph showing a person. The Artists Studio by Louis Daguerre Source: (Khan Academy, 2017) This photograph, titled The Artists Studio or Still life in studio is one of the earliest photographs taken by the eminent photographer, Louis Jacques Mande Daguerre. This photograph dates back to the year 1837. It is a set up that was well arranged with deliberate artistic intent. The image includes a relief after Jean Goujon. The function was to hone the focusing technology of the daguerreotype. In this photograph, the most interesting subjects are not centred but slightly tilted. The diagonals in the picture attract the eyes of the viewer to the centre of the photograph with the edges being fuzzy. This is one of the most acclaimed works of Louis Daguerre. The dark areas of the image indicate the absence of light whereas the lighter areas denote the areas where there is an interplay between light and darkness. According to Arnason (2013), the contrast between light and darkness presents an interesting texture of the photograph. The relief created by shadows is indeed extremely inte resting to observe. This image too was obtained using the technique of daguerreotype. The image was taken on a copper sheet that was enveloped with a thin plate of silver. It was then polished and cleaned thoroughly. The plate was later suspended over iodine which led to a formation of silver iodide on the surface which was sensitive to light. This was then exposed to light in a camera which was lens-equipped for about anywhere etween thirty minutes to less than a second. The plate was then hung again over a heated dish of mercury. After this stage, the image magically appeared on the surface of the plate with a range of tones visible. The contribution of Louis Daguerre in the world of photography is unequivocal. His gift to the world of photography is without a doubt, immense. This invention of this pioneer personality paved the path to modern day photography. Nowadays, we cannot even imagine a world that is without photographs and images. He took one of the earliest photographs. Photography has come a long way since the days of plate polishing to the modern day digital camera. However, without his invention, we could not have enjoyed the development in the world of photography that we enjoy today. References: Arnason, H.H. and Mansfield, E., 2013.History of modern art: painting, sculpture, architecture, photography. Pearson. Bellis, M., 2013. History of photographyPinhole cameras to the daguerreotype.About. com. Bhattacharjee, G., Painting with Light. Gendler, R. and GaBany, R.J., 2015. A Series of Firsts, from Daguerreotypes to Dry Plates. InBreakthrough!(pp. 15-30). Springer International Publishing. Harbord, J., 2014. Gesture, Time, Movement: David Claerbout Meets Giorgio Agamben on the Boulevard du Temple. Khan Academy. (2017). Khan Academy. [online] Available at: https://www.khanacademy.org/humanities/becoming-modern/early-photography/a/daguerre-paris-boulevard [Accessed 13 Jan. 2017]. Nunberg, G., 2013. The Impact of Photography.Agenda,3, p.13. Pinson, S.C., 2012. Speculating Daguerre: art and enterprise in the work of LJM Daguerre. Robinson, A., 2016. Candid camera.Science,352(6291), pp.1284-1284. Sekula, A., 2014. An eternal esthetics of laborious gestures.Grey Room, (55), pp.16-27. Khan Academy. (2017). Khan Academy. [online] Available at: https://www.khanacademy.org/humanities/becoming-modern/early-photography/a/early-photography-nipce-talbot-and-muybridge [Accessed 13 Jan. 2017].
Friday, May 1, 2020
Group Proposal: Interpersonal Relationship Empowerment and Stress Management Group For Asian International Students at the Pennsylvania State University Moran He The Pennsylvania State University 1 Group Proposal 2 Abstract The following proposal outlines a counseling group program for Asian international students. The program is formed to address issues regarding interpersonal relationship difficulties and life stress among Asian international students. The group is open but is limited to no more than eight group members. The group meet once a week for thirteen sessions and will be offered during the fall semester of the academic year. The areas of counseling focus of the group include consciousness-raising, assertiveness training, and stress management. The proposed group program fills the gap in services available to Asian international students. This proposal describes the rationale, group format, group process, and evaluation criteria. Group Proposal 3 Group Proposal: Interpersonal Relationship Empowerment and Stress Management Group For Asian International Students at the Pennsylvania State University Purpose and Objectives Rationale The Pennsylvania State University (PSU) ranked the 14th nationally among institutions with the largest number of international students (Institute of International Education (IIE), 2005). The presence of approximately 3,700 international students on PSU campus has enriched the cultural experiences of the campus community and improved the chances for developing global understanding. At PSU, Asian enrollments accounted for sixty-nine percent of all international students (University Office of International Programs, 2003). In this proposal, I describe a culturally responsive counseling group for these Asian international students with a focus on interpersonal relationship empowerment and stress management. Issues regarding its implementation are discussed. Unique Sources of Stress. International students in the United States (U. S. ) face chronic strains of enduring separation, adjustment problems, and social isolation (Thomas Althen, 1989). Among these stressors, the loss of familiar and social support and the void of new interpersonal relationships with the host nationals are identified as the biggest problems for international students (Pedersen, 1991). Misra, Crist, and Burant (2003) proposed five indicators of life stress among international students: language difficulty, acculturization stress, academic pressure, financial crisis, and interpersonal stress. Consistent with PedersonÃ¢â¬â¢s contention, Misra and her colleagues also concluded that of these five indicators, interpersonal problems had the largest predictive power of life stress among international students. Group Proposal 4 Conflicts between the Asian and American concepts of friendship, the disapproval in Asian culture of interpersonal qualities such as outspokenness and assertiveness, ethnic discrimination, and language barrier are the main factors that discourage Asian international students from attempting to form deep, nurturing relationships with Americans (Hayes Lin, 1994; Mori, 2002. Consequently, these students are forced to develop intimacy solely with their fellow nationals in the campus community. Given such a small socializing circle, developing romantic relationships, a significant developmental task in adulthood, becomes particularly impossible for the seventy-eight percent of the international students at PSU who are single. Manifestations of Symptoms. Important differences in reactions to stressors were found between Asian international and American students. Asian international students typically display cognitive or physiological reactions when coping with stress whereas American students exhibit more behavioral and emotional reactions (Misra Castillo, 2004). In other words, Asian international students tend to deal with the somatic symptoms such as headaches, stomachaches, sleep problems, physical tension, and weight loss, but may fail to acknowledge the emotional or interpersonal problems that have caused such symptoms (Carr, et al. , 2002). Psychologically, at their arrival in the U. S. , Asian international students who held unrealistic expectations about the quality of their lives in the U. S. may experience profound feelings of loss and disappointment in the face of reality (Mori, 2000). Later on, as a result of prolonged endurance of interpersonal and social frustrations, Asian international students are likely to develop a sense of inferiority and a depreciative self-concept. Furthermore, difficulties in establishing nurturing interpersonal relationships and the lack of support to deal with life stress, coupled with family expectations and obligations, often lead to clinically significant Group Proposal 5 depressive symptoms, sense of hopelessness and helplessness, and suicidal ideation in the Asian student population (Yang Clum, 1994). Areas of Counseling Focus. Support groups and psycho-educational workshops for international students have typically revolved around issues regarding cultural orientation, cultural shock, academic transition, career planning, and resource location (Abe, et al. , 1998; Carr, et al. , 2002; Lacina, 2002). In discussing possible therapeutic interventions for international students, practitioners and scholars (e. g. , Hong Cooker, 1984; Mori, 2000) have long agreed upon three areas of counseling focus that are essential for the well-being of these students, namely, consciousness raising, assertiveness training, and stress management. However, in group therapy practice, rarely found are counseling groups which concentrate on empowering Asian students for more fulfilling relationships or alleviating their stress symptoms. Considering that the Center for Counseling and Psychological Services (CAPS) at PSU only offers one psycho-educational group for all the international students at University Park, I believe that the proposed counseling group fills a gap in the service currently available for Asian international students at PSU. Objectives Given that Asian international students who experience emotional and interpersonal difficulties might not be aware of the sources of their struggles and that they might develop unfounded assumptions about themselves and others, the preliminary objectives of the group experience are to sensitize clients to their sensations, feelings, and opinions, to develop an understanding of oneself as an individual and in relation to others, and to provide a safe space for them to explore and modify their self-image in a bicultural context. Group Proposal 6 Secondly, because of Asian studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ needs to enhance their sense of power and level of function in interpersonal relationships, the assertiveness training component aims to identify the etiology of group clientsÃ¢â¬â¢ lack of assertiveness, to validate and express feelings in an appropriate manner, to enable differentiation between assertive, passive, and aggressive behavior, and to practice assertive rights and responsibilities in order to increase self-respect and reduce social anxiety. Finally, because of the significant level of life stress among Asian students, a third component of the objectives of this group includes developing various stress management techniques and practical relaxation methods in order to alter their physiological responses, challenge any dysfunctional thinking, and change maladaptive life-style patterns. Group Structure and Setting Group Length, Meeting Time, and Size This group will be free to all Asian international students at University Park. It will be promoted through CAPS, the University Office of International Programs, and international student organizations. The group will meet thirteen weeks (over the fall semester) for an hour and a half each week. The time span of fourteen weeks is practical because it will allow approximately two weeks for recruiting and screening potential clients and end before the final examination week. A semester-long group experience will also allow for increased opportunity for group members to experiment with changing their behaviors and more solid integration of changes already accomplished (Corey Corey, 2006). The group will meet in the evening hours toÃ accommodate the hectic class schedule of undergraduate students and the assistantship obligations of graduate students during day time. Group Proposal 7 Size is an important consideration when forming any type of group. Since this group is a counseling group, the optimum number of members is no more than eight. A group of ten or more is likely to divide into two subgroups (Posthuma, 1999). Two group leaders will be a CAPS counselor and a doctoral trainee who have interest in and experience with international students. Desirably, one facilitator either came from an Asian cultural background or had studyabroad experiences. Membership and Screening An essential aspect of this counseling group is a pre-group interview. Each prospective member will meet with both group co-leaders during the first two weeks of the semester. In order to insure the maximum safety, functioning, and cohesion of group members, prospective clients will be screened for ethnicity, identified problems, level of functioning, and projected goals (Corey Corey, 2006). The two major goals of the pre-group interview are to assess the appropriateness of the individual for the group and to describe the nature of the group and its structure and guidelines. The co-leaders will shape the interview to obtain a general psychological and developmental history, an evaluation of their insight related to their interpersonal relationships and stress symptoms, and some understanding of the clientsÃ¢â¬â¢ view of group counseling services. Particular attention will be given to students who are during their first and third year of stay in the U. S. because research indicated that stress level among Asian international students became higher during the first and third year of stay (Cho, 1988). Prospective clients who are assessed as unable to function autonomously in a group will be referred to individual therapy. During the interview, it is critical that the group co-leaders de-stigmatize clientsÃ¢â¬â¢ participation in this counseling group. Group Proposal 8 The co-leaders will try to achieve some heterogeneity of age, gender, country of citizenship, and presenting concerns. The co-leaders will also receive referrals from the University Health Services and individual counseling services at CAPS. Considering the large number of Asian international students at PSU, the group will be open to new clients as long as the number of group members does not exceed eight. Toward the end of the screening interview, the co-leaders will review the group guidelines and ask the prospective group members if they can commit themselves to group confidentiality, consistent attendance and punctuality, participation, and practicing behavior changes outside the group weekly. Physical Setting Environmental factors can contribute to successful recruitment of group members and prevention of premature termination. Asian international students, even when they do experience psychological difficulties, are less likely to walk into counseling centers because of the cultural stigma against emotional expression in public and seeking counseling (Yoon Portman, 2004). An emphasis on family fame and face often prevents Asian students from accessing professional services. Poyrazlie and his colleagues (2004) recommended that when offering group counseling, counseling centers could work in conjunction with international student office to lessen any stigma related to the use of counseling services among international students, especially among Asians. The University Office of International Programs at PSU has always been a favorite social location for many international students. Therefore, the two group co-leaders will work with the international student office and to secure a meeting room in that office. Desirably, the office will also help decorating the meeting room with Asian artwork or symbols to create a safe and culturally friendly environment. Group Proposal 9 Group Process This counseling group is formed in light of the interpersonal problems and life stress experienced by Asian international students. Therefore, this group is interventive and remedial in nature and focuses on problem-solving. In the following section, I describe in detail the counseling theories the co-leaders will used in the group process, themes and techniques to be used in each session, and the roles of co-leaders and group members. I also provide a list of ethical considerations for working with Asian international students. Group Approach According to Trotzer (2006), the counseling group approach is used to address the task of Ã¢â¬Å"helping group participants resolve the usual, yet often difficult, problems of living through interpersonal support and group problem solvingÃ¢â¬ (p. 41). Groups of this type are usually conducted in nonmedical settings to serve clients who have not been diagnosed with a mental disorder. Because of the emphasis on personal and interpersonal problems, the co-leaders need to work together with the clients to determine the focus of the group and its sessions. In the proposed counseling group, clients will be invited to discuss interpersonal problems or life stress with which they can identify, at least to some extent, and to work toward Ã¢â¬Å"dissolving the group by resolving their problemsÃ¢â¬ (p. 44). Throughout the process, clients will be encouraged to take responsibilities for their own growth in the group experience. The two coleaders will be primarily facilitators who use verbal techniques and leadership skills to keep the group oriented to member concerns and the here-and-now group interaction. However, from time to time, there will be educational moments when the co-leaders need to teach and model for the group social or conversational skills and stress management skills. Group Proposal 10 The group co-leaders will draw on the integration of theoretical approaches to group therapy in developing and implementing this counseling group (Corey and Corey, 2006). Specifically, the co-leaders will refer to the Relational therapy when dealing with awarenessenhancement issues (Enns, 1992), Cognitive-Behavioral theories as applied to assertiveness training and stress management (Romano, J. 1992; Ulman, 2000), and the multicultural counseling meta-theory as applied to working with Asian students. Advantages and Limitations The literature on consciousness-raising, interpersonal problem-solving and stress management counseling groups reveals that clients join these groups to realize that they are not alone and to gain validation for their experience (Corey Corey, 2006; Trotzer, 2006). The opportunities for Asian international students to share similar concerns in the group can be empowering. The counseling group in itself will serve as a form of social support to the Asian international students who struggle with social isolation at different levels. In addition, through their group participation, these clients will learn that their stress and interpersonal problems are rooted more in the culture and the environment surrounding them than in their personality. Furthermore, this counseling group will provide them with a safe space to observe, compare, model, and gain insight into thoughts and behaviors of othersÃ¢â¬â¢ and their own in relationships and in stressful situations. Most importantly, the challenges of engaging themselves in self- disclosure and feedback in the group process can increase the Asian clientsÃ¢â¬â¢ capacity to engage in mutually empowering relationships outside of the group. This group counseling approach is not without limitations. Devan (2001) pointed out that Asian international studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ difficulty in expressing intimacy in public could be enhanced in a group situation. Such defense against intimacy is often manifested as group silence, prolonged Group Proposal 11 silence from individuals, somatization, gender bound groupism (i. e. , same sex members group together), and avoidance of cultural taboos such as sexual topics. In addition, Asian clients might be threatened by the consequences of another member in the group breaching confidentiality to their acquaintances in the close Asian community. Also, because of the male gender role expectations in Asian culture, it will be extremely challenging for Asian male clients to admit their struggles or weaknesses in front of women clients. Client resistance, if left unattended, can very likely lead to early termination. Thus, this group requires on the coleadersÃ¢â¬â¢ part a high sensitivity to the hidden agendas in the clients and the capability to assess clientsÃ¢â¬â¢ behaviors in the group. Co-Leadership and Methods The use of co-leaders in counseling groups is common practice. Given the multicultural nature of this group, the use of co-leaders from different ethnic backgrounds is even more appropriate. The challenges of working with Asian international students over one semester can be stressful for one counselor. The co-leadership helps prevent the co-leaders from burning out. It also provides the co-leaders with the opportunity to process, conceptualize, offer and receive feedback, and brainstorm (Corey Corey, 2006). Given the complexity of the integrative theoretical approach used in this group, the two co-leaders need to discuss and share a common view of the basic structural issues of the group. It is also crucial for them to be aware of each otherÃ¢â¬â¢s leadership style and any possible biases they hold towards the client group. As I have mentioned earlier, the co-leaders in this group will take up a primary role of facilitators, and occasionally that of educators. In addition to these two major roles, the coleaders will seek to create healthy group norms such as acceptance, validation, sense of hope, and balance between self and the group. At the initial stage of the group work, the co-leaders Group Proposal 12 will work together to create a sense of group cohesion by stimulating the sharing of similar experiences and pointing to the commonalities of struggles and symptoms of members. It is important for the co-leaders to normalize clientsÃ¢â¬â¢ experiences of difficulties in order to prevent them from labeling their symptoms as signs of Ã¢â¬Å"mental illness. Ã¢â¬ In each weekly meeting, the co-leaders will encourage curiosity about individual resistance and difficulties in implementing desired changes. Co-leaders might use projective techniques to deal with cultural resistance toward self-disclosure (Devan, 2001). The co-leaders will also be responsible for inviting the clients to think of effective and ineffective ways they have responded to stressful life situations. In doing so, the co-leaders help the clients develop insights into the psychological and contextual factors that influence their current difficulties. Another responsibility of the co-leaders will be creating a therapeutic Ã¢â¬Å"experimenting spaceÃ¢â¬ for members to try out new behaviors and experience new options. During the counseling process, co-leaders may also encourage clients to express their feelings in their first language and have other members help them express their feelings in English. Group Format and Learning Activities The co-leaders will utilize a semi-structured approach to introduce specific activities related to certain topics of discussion while at the same time allowing the flexibility to address clientsÃ¢â¬â¢ presenting problems in each session. In the pre-group interview, co-leaders will help the prospective clients identify problem areas in their lives and ask them to specify particular problems they want to work on in the group. Based on the content of the pre-group interview, the co-leaders will adjust the preliminary group format described below: Sessions 1 and 2. Group rules such as confidentiality and limits, safety issues, voluntary membership, commitment to the group, voluntary self-disclosure and so on will be reiterated. Group Proposal 13 Formal informed consent will be obtained from each client. Co-leaders will also hand out the Goal Attainment Scale (Trotzer, 2006, p. 430) to clients for weekly self-assessment. These two sessions will be primarily devoted to getting acquainted with each other and sharing individual goals. Session 3. This session will be focused on identifying specific problem areas in clientsÃ¢â¬â¢ lives. The group will start to build cohesiveness and acceptance and engage in active listening. Session 4 and 5. The focus of these sessions will be on consciousness-raising. Clients will use creative ways to express their thoughts and feelings about their presenting problems. The coleaders will facilitate the discussion of specific personal, interpersonal and sociocultural influences on the clientsÃ¢â¬â¢ experience of these problems. Session 6 and 7. In session 6, co-leaders will provide Asian snacks and tea to celebrate clientsÃ¢â¬â¢ perseverance through half of the group experience. Communication skills and assertion skills will be integrated into these sessions, using role play and behavioral rehearsal as well as out-of-group assignments. The clients will focus on their here-and-now feelings about trying out these skills. Clients will also differentiate assertion, manipulation, and aggression. Cultural barriers regarding assertiveness will be addressed. Permission will be obtained from clients to videotape part of one session so as to evaluate membersÃ¢â¬â¢ participation and group interaction. Session 8 and 9. The focus of these sessions will be on stress management and corrective self-care cognition and behaviors. Clients will learn to attend to their physiological responses to stress. They will also identify how they typically cope with common stressors in their lives. Clients will pay attention to their cognitive distortions which can lead to emotional stress. The co-leaders will facilitate the clients with developing a repertoire of stress management techniques as well as enhancing their self-esteem. Group Proposal 14 Session 10 and 13. These sessions will be devoted to problems on which clients want to work. Clients will also begin to assess their progress and the progress of the group. More reflection, self-adjustment, and feedback will be initiated by the clients in these sessions. The primary purpose will be for the clients to internalize what they have learned and report on their changes outside the group. The co-leaders will shape the discussion by reminding the clients often of the upcoming ending. In the final session, clients will deal with separation, recognize, and celebrating individual and group gains. Information of future services and useful resources will be given to clients. Exit Interview. An exit interview will be arranged with individual client to discuss the Goal Attainment Scale that has been distributed in the first session. Materials and Resources Lazarus and Folkman (1984), Posthuma (1999), and Trotzer (2006) gave examples of best practices in group counseling for consciousness-raising, assertiveness training, and stress management. In this counseling group, discussion topics, journaling, videotaping, drawing, structured exercises, and homework are the major types of learning activities. Materials such as videotape recorder, CD player, printed handouts and manuals, posters, flip chart or whiteboard, colored pencils, magazines, and paper bags will be needed. Most of the activities involve acting and drawing. Most of the required materials are readily available at the university. Ethics and Multiculturalism It is essential for any group leaders to be professionally trained and have a solid understanding of the Ethical Guidelines for Group Counselors (Association for Specialists in Group Work, 1990). The co-leaders should be aware of personal styles and biases. At the recruitment and screening stage, co-leaders need to provide prospective clients with a statement Group Proposal 15Ã of their professional qualifications (Corey Corey, 2006). It is critical for the clients to feel that participation in learning activities is voluntary. In addition, co-leaders need to review with the clients the importance of confidentiality from time to time throughout the length of the group. Carr and her colleagues (2002) contended that when working with Asian students from abroad, counselors must reevaluate the Eurocentric ethical guidelines for conducti ng group therapy in the context of Asian culture. They suggested that counselors consider boundary issues, helping roles, worldviews, cultural competence, and confidentiality when applying ethical standards. For example, the western concept of confidentiality must be carefully explained to group members if they are already acquainted with each other in the small community of students from their home countries. Another issue for the co-leaders to consider is the devaluing of assertiveness in the Asian culture. According to Wood and Mallinchrodt (1990), Asian clients may feel uncomfortable role-playing assertive behaviors. Asking them to apply assertion skills outside the counseling session may cause considerable anxiety or even carry social costs. Therefore, the co-leaders need to be culturally more sensitive as they address the passivity and indirectness of Asian clientsÃ¢â¬â¢ communication behaviors. The co-leaders also need to understand that filial piety and respect for authority are fundamental values in Asian culture. Asian international students may expect a hierarchical order in the therapeutic relationship. In other words, they may expect the counselor to be more directive and authoritarian. Therefore, the co-leaders need to negate the Ã¢â¬Å"cultural fear of authorityÃ¢â¬ by allowing a fairly directive and supportive leadership style in the beginning (Devan, 2001, p. 574; Zhang Dixon, 2003). Group Proposal 16 Finally, co-leaders need to attend to the gender difference in the counseling group (Misra and Castillo, 2004). Female international students have higher reactions to stressors than their male counterparts. In Asian culture particularly, they struggle more to free themselves from role expectations than male students in general (Misra, Crist, Burant, 2003). Thus, stress management and assertiveness training, in the presence of Asian male clients, might be more challenging to Asian female clients. Group Evaluation I consider the evaluation of group counseling to be pivotal to both the individual group experience and the ongoing development of this group program. According to Trotzer (2006), the effectiveness of individual sessions and the overall effectiveness of the group experience can be assessed through member evaluation, group process evaluation, self and other reports of outcome, and co-leader evaluation. In the first session, the co-leaders will distribute a weekly self-report in the form of Goal Attainment Scale (Trotzer, 2006). These self-assessment forms will be collected and evaluated when the co-leaders meet with individual clients in the exit interview. Clients will be asked to identify specific and measurable problem-solving goals they want to attain and rate their performance each week on a 5-point scale. The combining Goal Attainment Scale score across all group members demonstrates the overall effectiveness of the group counseling process. Meanwhile, the co-leaders will ask the members to keep logs of their honest reactions to each group meeting as well as suggestions for improvement on 3 x 5 index cards. Halfway through the group process, an evaluation of video replays of a group session will be carried out. Clients will be asked to analyze their actions and the interaction of the group. At the end of the group experience, clients will give each other feedback on the visibility and positivity of their